Media or method?
In this study, it was aimed to clarify whether the value that instructional technologies should focus on should be media or method by looking at how the concepts of Technology, Media, method (method)are defined. The media-method debate, which began in 1983 and is still ongoing, “does media have an effect on learning? Can it have an effect?”questions have evolved around (Yazıcı& Kültür, 2016). He stated that the diversity of the definition of technology is the main reason for the confusion in the discussion process, in an element that makes the media-method debate difficult, the parties do not use the terms in the same sense (Clark, 2000; Shrock, 1994 akt. Yazıcı& Kültür, 2016). Because of this, first of all, defining terms will be useful in research.
Technology: the process of solving problems with tools and methods developed through science and experience (printer &culture, 2016).
Method ( method): the teacher’s way of teaching a subject is followed by materials based on teaching theories and principles (printer &culture, 2016).
Media: the Turkish equivalent is tools such as computers, books, television in teaching, which are tools, tools or media (printer &culture, 2016).
In his 1983 article “reevaluating research on learning from the media,” Clark said that media does not contribute to learning. Eight years later, in his article “Learning with media”, Kozma responded to Clark by stating that there is a connection between media and method. This debate is thought to be important in that the field of instructional technology questions itself (Yazıcı& Kültür, 2016). Shrock (1994) considers that this discussion is important to the field, noting what we are trying to do, who we are, and how the field questions itself (Yazıcı& Kültür, 2016).
Media tools 35 years ago and today’s Media tools have undoubtedly changed with the development of technology. Technological developments in the years we are in are quite rapid. Many studies are carried out on E-learning, game learning, mobile learning, social networks, online learning environments (Yazıcı& Kültür, 2016). With a social media supported environment, images, writing and sound can be combined and an alternative learning environment can be created (Toğay et al., 2013). For this reason, social media has many features that can realize educational processes. When using technological innovations in education, it is important that the new can be used within the framework of which learning/teaching method as well as its features, functions, possible benefits. Because it is not possible to teach with a technology that does not coincide with the pedagogical approach (Öztürk &Talas, 2015).
Technology does not support learning when used alone only facilitates, it supports learning when used with effective teaching methods and designs (Yang, Wang &Chiu, 2014). One of the most important tasks of people in the field of instructional technologies is to be open and flexible to new developments and to explore how innovations should be used for teaching and learning (Yazıcı& Kültür, 2016). Instead of the question of whether media affects learning, we should discuss what needs to be done to strengthen learning and teaching. We have to think about what ways and how it should be regulated. Akyol and Cagiltay (2007) also stated that we should focus on what methods we should do to improve teaching and learning by the media, not whether the media should have influence in the debate ( Yazıcı& Kültür, 2016).
It is important that the method is shaped and decorated according to the needs of the student and put forward together with the media, without leaving the media alone when achieving the learning goals. I think that the value of the field of educational technologies, which should be focused on the method, should not ignore the media while focusing on it.
Öztürk, M. F., & Talas, M. (2015). Sosyal medya ve eğitim etkileşimi. Zeitschrift für die Welt der Türken/Journal of World of Turks, 7(1), 101-120.
Toğay, A., Akdur, T. E., Yetişken, İ. C., & Bilici, A. (2013). Eğitim süreçlerinde sosyal ağların kullanımı: Bir MYO deneyimi. XIV. Akademik Bilişim Konferansı, 28-30.
Yang, K. T., Wang, T. H., & Chiu, M. H. (2014). How technology fosters learning: Inspiration from the “Media Debate”. Creative Education, 5(12), 1086-1090.
Yazıcı, C., & Kültür, C. (2016). Medya mı yöntem mi? Bitmeyen tartışma. İçinde K.Çağıltay & Y. Göktaş (Eds.) Öğretim teknolojisinin temelleri: Teoriler, Araştırmalar, Eğilimler (123-140). Ankara: Pegem Net Yayıncılık
YAZAR: Mehmet BEBEK
Graduate Student Of Mersin University Institute Of Educational Sciences