Teaching theories of learning

Teaching theories of learning

Teaching theories of learning- In this article, should a teacher have a learning / teaching theory-related perspective or create their own eclectic perspective by explaining the perspectives of learning and teaching theories about reality, the role of the learner and the teacher, evaluation? it is intended to search for answers to his question. Reigeluth (1999c) defines instructional theories as aimed at explaining when and how instructional methods, techniques and strategies should be used by looking at the physical and cognitive state of individuals in order to achieve the most effective learning (akt. Şendağ, 2016). Smith and Ragan (2000), on the other hand, defined teaching theory as a principle that serves to make a plan for the conditions under which an individual can conduct certain cognitive processes depending on learning and some related theories (akt. Şendağ, 2016). There are many learning-teaching theories (behavioral, cognitive, constructivist, motivational, and humanist theories) developed by scientists (Mace, Yildirim, ball & meteorite, 2015). It is believed that the view of reality, the role of the learner and the teacher, and the determination of points of view related to evaluation will play an important role in answering our question.

Programmatic Teaching

In this theory, which Skinner (1954) put forward, defined as change in behavior, materials are prepared for purpose, information is divided into small units, and units are sorted from simple to complex and from the previous step to the next step (Şendağ, 2016). After the transfer of each small unit, the individual is expected to actively demonstrate the acquisition. Questions and exercises help a person convey the behavior they have gained and evaluate it by the teacher (Şendağ, 2016). In this teaching theory, activities must be prepared according to the level of the individual and the correct answer must be found with clues. In addition, strengthening the right behavior and strengthening the right behavior as a result of the activities are seen as the main factor (Şendağ, 2016).
Although programmatic teaching has established important principles in planning and realization processes, some researchers have stated that programmatic teaching will be insufficient to solve real-life problems ( Şendağ, 2016). They also questioned the availability of trainings as they were carried out with similar groups (age, class level, similar level of knowledge and learning).

As a result, the individual must learn on his own without learning and teaching in this theory, where the material is active. In addition, since there is an active communication between the learner and the teaching material, the teaching environment can also be moved outside the school (Konahçı, 1985). This theory has played an influential role in the development of computer-based teaching that emerged after the 1980s (Şendağ, 2016).

Nine Stages Of Teaching

It has been suggested that there are different types of learning with this theory first put forward by Robert Gagne in 1965 (Şendağ, 2016). According to the theory, teaching is designed differently according to different types of learning (verbal information, mental skills, attitudes, psychomotor skills, cognitive strategies) (Gagne, 1985 akt. Şendağ, 2016). The most important element necessary for the realization of teaching is the learning environments created for different types of learning (Gagne Driscoll, 1985 akt. Şendağ, 2016).

According to Gagne, the easiest learning from mental skills is sign learning. In this learning, the student learns a letter, digit or symbol. The most difficult mental learning is problem solving. He needs to know the principles and concepts for problem solving. A person who can solve problems can also solve other problems that he or she faces in daily life with these concepts and principles that he or she has learned (Elm &Erden, 2008).

Gagne( 1985) identified learning activities in a teaching environment in this model he developed and identified them in nine stages (akt. Şendağ, 2016). These include attracting attention, informing students about the goal, remembering previous learning, presenting learning material, guiding learning, performing, feedback, evaluating performance, and ensuring permanence and transfer.
Teachers can choose these nine stages and write their own educational scenarios in the classroom environment (Şendağ, 2016). The learner and the educator take an active role at every stage. During the performance evaluation phase, it is evaluated whether the targeted gains have been reached.

Teaching lighting theory (ÖAT)

In the late 1970s, Reigeluth and colleagues ranked and organized the teaching process and put it forward as a model (Ailson & Cole, 1992 akt. Şendağ, 2016). In ÖAT, it is emphasized that content should be divided into small parts and ordered in a hierarchical structure and should be organized within this basic framework (Reigeluth, 1979 akt Şendağ, 2016). based on a person’s previous learning, new information should be sorted from simple to complex by establishing a relationship with each other in a specific logical order and should support learning and increase motivation (Şendağ, 2016).& nbsp; Wilson & amp; Cole (1992) stated that there are seven basic components of Öat. These are structural organization, simple to complex sorting, sorting within the course, summarization, synthesis, analogy, and memory promoters.

Reigeluth (1979) used the zoom simulation of a lens to explain the nature of Öat. Accordingly, a person wants to see important relationships by focusing on the entire picture in a wide-angle way. But there are no details. Zooming in on a specific part of the image allows the person to see the main sub-parts. After reviewing the subsection, the person returns to the entire image( zoom out) to associate the entire image with this subsection that they are studying. It continues the same zoom-in and zoom-out operations until it reaches the desired level.

It can be said that this theory contributes to the development of the instructional design of complex cognitive tasks in complex cognitive structured learning (Şendağ, 2016). In this theory, the role of the teacher can be in a wide range of learning, ranging from an external (student-controlled) understanding to a teacher-centered (learner-controlled) understanding (Şendağ, 2016).

Selection-organization-integration (SOB)

In this theory, revealed by Richard Mayer, the main goal is to guide how a teaching design can be if an individual cannot actively participate in teaching (Şendağ, 2016). Information from both the verbal and visual channels is integrated into the learner’s mind with previous information (Mayer, 1999 akt. Şendağ, 2016). Presentation, animation, visuals, worksheets prepared in instructional design are structured in the mind of the individual with the knowledge that he will learn new (Şendağ, 2016).

As a result, it guides the individual on how to improve the design of teaching, unless the learner is actively involved in the learning process. It reveals how a student can individually learn a topic using multiple materials and integrate it with previous topics (Şendağ, 2016).

Constructivist learning circles (OÖÇ)

This theory, originated by David Jonassen (1999), emphasizes that knowledge cannot be transmitted directly from the teacher to the learner. According to this theory, the student does not receive information directly from the outside world, complements and interprets the information with the information he has learned in advance, and suggests that the necessary environments can be prepared by preparing his own learning environments and structuring the information within himself (Şendağ, 2016).OÖÇ theory focuses on students ‘ research and problem-solving skills. The problem motivates the student and eliminating the problems caused by the problem Awakens the need to seek solutions in the student (Jonessen, 1997 akt. Şendağ, 2016).  & nbsp; oöç theory needs to perform functions such as being an instructive model, providing support and coaching (Şendağ, 2016). In traditional learning, the student remains passive and the teacher is the only source and transmitter of information. The teacher fails to provide psychological confidence in the teaching environment with these responsibilities transferred to him (Tezci Gürol, 2003). Brooks (1993) noted that in constructivist teaching, the teacher is in a position to ask questions, simulate, give time to build relationships, analyze to arouse the student’s curiosity and interest (akt. Tezci Gürol, 2003).


As a result, in this theory, the role of the teacher, in which the job of learning is in the student, is explained by the concept of coaching. This causes OÖÇ to emerge as a structure that facilitates student learning by arguing that learning is the work of the student rather than an institutional structure consisting of a clear set of principles (Şendağ, 2016).   this causes OÖÇ to appear to be at a disadvantage in planning the teaching process when considering the definition of teaching theories (Şendağ, 2016).

References:

Karaağaçlı, M., & Erden, O. (2008). İnternet destekli uzaktan eğitimde dokuz aşamalı öğretim durumunun tasarımı. Bilişim Teknolojileri Dergisi1(2), 21-29.

Külahçı, Ş. G. (1985). Kendi kendine öğretim-programlı öğretim. Eğitim ve Bilim10 (58), 10-20.

Reigeluth, C. M. (1979). In search of a better way to organize instruction: The elaboration theory. Journal of Instructional Development2(3), 8-15.

Şendağ, S. (2016). Öğretim teorileri ve öğretim teknolojileri. İçinde K.Çağıltay & Y. Göktaş (Eds.) Öğretim teknolojisinin temelleri: Teoriler, Araştırmalar, Eğilimler (143-158). Ankara: Pegem Net Yayıncılık

Tezci, E. & Gürol, A. (2003). Oluşturmacı öğretim tasarımı ve yaratıcılık (constructivist instructional design and creativity). The Turkish Online Journal Of Educational Technology–TOJET, 2 (1), 50-55.

Topuz, A. C., Yıldırım, Ö., Topu, F. B. & Göktaş, Y. (2015). Öğrenme teorileri üzerine inşa edilen web 2.0 uygulamaları: Science direct veri tabanı incelenmesi. Bilişim Teknolojileri Dergisi,8 (2), 59-69.